How Long Does It Take to Grow Peanuts

How-Long-Does It Take to Grow Peanuts
PHOTO: Caglayan Unal Sumer
How Long Does It Take to Grow Peanuts

Peanuts, also known as groundnuts, Peanuts are a legume, not a true nut. They belong to the Fabaceae family, which is the same family as beans and lentils.  Despite their name, peanuts are not related to tree nuts.

If you’re curious about growing peanuts, you might be wondering how long it takes for them to reach maturity. In this article, we’ll break down the different stages of peanut growth, from germination to harvest.

By the end, you’ll have a better understanding of the time it takes for these delicious legumes to grow. So, let’s dive in and discover how long  It takes to grow peanuts.

Scientific Name: Arachis hypogaea
  • USDA Hardiness Zones: 8-11
  • Height: 1 to 2 feet.
  • Best Month to Plant Peanuts: May to early June(in the late spring or early summer)
  • When to Harvest: 120 to 160 days after planting

Germination and Early Growth

Germination and Early Growth
PHOTO: wawritto

 

Peanuts have a germination timeline of 7-10 days and start growing within 2 weeks. You’ll notice the germination process begins when the peanut seed absorbs water and swells. This process activates enzymes within the seed, triggering the  breakdown of stored nutrients into simpler forms that can be used for seedling growth.

The seedling emerges with two cotyledons, which are the first leaves, and a taproot that anchors it in the soil. During this early growth stage, the peanut plant requires specific nutrient requirements to support its development. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are essential for healthy root and shoot growth.

Environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and light also play crucial roles in the growth and development of the peanut plant. Additionally, proper pest and disease management is crucial to prevent damage and ensure optimal growth and yield.

Vegetative Stage

The vegetative stage of peanut plants generally lasts for about 30 to 45 days. During this phase, the plant focuses on root development, leaf growth, and stem elongation.

 Here’s what you need to know to ensure their healthy growth:

  1. Nutrient requirements: Provide your peanut plants with a balanced fertilizer that contains nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These essential nutrients will promote vigorous growth and overall plant health.
  2. Pruning techniques: Regularly remove any dead or diseased leaves to prevent the spread of disease and encourage new growth. Additionally, prune any branches that are crossing or overcrowding to improve air circulation and light penetration.
  3. Pest management: Monitor your plants regularly for signs of pests such as aphids or caterpillars. Use organic pest control methods or insecticidal soaps to manage infestations and protect your plants from damage.

Remember to follow a consistent watering schedule to keep the soil evenly moist, but not waterlogged. Adequate soil preparation, including loosening and amending with organic matter, will also contribute to the healthy growth of your peanut plants.

Flowering and Fruit Development

Flowering and Fruit Development
PHOTO: Carita Liberato

 

The flowering stage usually begins around 30 to 35 days after planting and continues for about one to two weeks. This stage involves the emergence of small yellow flowers on the peanut plant, which is crucial for pollination and the subsequent development of peanut pods.

The flowers rely on pollinators, such as bees, to transfer pollen from the male to the female flowers, enabling fertilization and fruit development.

Nutrient requirements are high at this stage, with the plants needing adequate amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Factors affecting flowering include temperature, light, and moisture levels.

It’s essential to manage pests and diseases, such as aphids and leaf spots, to ensure healthy fruit development. Additionally, the climate, including temperature and rainfall, can significantly impact the size and quality of the peanuts.

Maturation and Harvesting

Harvesting stage

When your peanut plants reach the maturation stage, it’s important to closely monitor their progress to ensure optimal harvest time. Here are some key points to consider:

  1. Timeframe for peanut maturation: The average time for peanuts to mature after planting is around 120 to 150 days, depending on the variety and growing conditions.
  2. Factors affecting peanut growth rate: Several factors can influence the growth rate of peanuts, including temperature, soil moisture, nutrient availability, and pest management.
  3. Optimal conditions for peanut harvesting: Peanuts are ready for harvest when the leaves start turning yellow and the pods have reached full size. The ideal soil moisture level for harvesting is around 30%, ensuring easier digging and less damage to the pods.

To promote faster peanut maturation, you can try the following methods:

  • Providing adequate water and nutrients to the plants.
  • Ensuring proper weed control to minimize competition.
  • Managing pests and diseases effectively.
  • Adjusting planting dates to take advantage of favorable weather conditions.

Peanut Varieties

Spanish Peanuts

Spanish peanuts are known for their shorter growth cycle compared to other varieties. They typically take around 100 to 120 days to mature, making them an excellent choice for regions with shorter growing seasons.

Virginia Peanuts

Virginia peanuts, on the other hand, require a longer growing period. These peanuts can take anywhere from 130 to 150 days to reach maturity. Therefore, it’s crucial to consider your climate and the available growing season.

Post-Harvest Processing

After harvesting your peanuts, it’s important to properly process and store them to maintain their quality and prevent spoilage.

To begin, you should dry the peanuts using effective drying methods such as natural air drying or mechanical drying. This ensures that excess moisture is removed, reducing the risk of mold or bacterial growth.

Once dried, you can proceed to grade the peanuts based on size, color, and quality using innovative grading techniques.

Proper storage conditions are crucial in preserving the peanuts’ freshness and flavor. You should store them in a cool, dry place with low humidity to prevent the growth of microorganisms.

Before consumption, shell removal is necessary. You can achieve this by using advanced mechanized techniques or by hand.

Conclusion

In conclusion, growing peanuts involves several stages, starting from germination and early growth, followed by the vegetative stage, flowering and fruit development, and finally, maturation and harvesting.

The duration of each stage varies depending on factors like climate, soil conditions, and peanut variety. However, on average, it takes approximately 120 to 150 days for peanuts to reach maturity and be ready for harvesting.

Proper post-harvest processing is crucial to ensure the quality and longevity of the peanuts

Leave a Comment